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Racial aspects of self-identification in nursery school children.

Seminal article by Ruth Horowitz. 
cited in The Development of Consciousness of Self and the Emergence of Racial Identification in the Negro (Clark and Clark, 1939)

The development of consciousness of self and the emergence of racial identification in Negro preschool children

The authors Kenneth and Mamie Clark modified the Horowitz picture technique by showing to 150 black children, between 3 and 5 years old, cards illustrating white and black children, and animals, and asking: "Which is you?" It was found that the majority of children at all ages studied made correct identifications. This article was cited by the 1947 Black Doll Study.

The Doll Test

In the 1940s, psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark designed and conducted a series of experiments known colloquially as “the doll tests” to study the psychological effects of segregation on African-American children.

Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.


The Moynihan Report: The Negro Family. The Case for National Action